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Minority Report: The Great Migration to The Warmth of Other Suns

“This is our story,” a friend declared in a recent email to me and  others. By “our history” she meant the history of African Americans living in northern cities throughout the US whose parents or grandparents had migrated from the South (which is to say the overwhelming majority of us).

the-warmth-of-other-sunsHer declaration was about Isabel Wilkerson’s The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration, the period from 1915 to 1970 when “some six million black southerners left the land of their forefathers and fanned out across the country for an uncertain existence in nearly every other corner of America.”

Wilkerson, a former reporter with The New York Times and the first black woman to win a Pulitzer Prize in journalism, calls the Great Migration “perhaps the most underreported story of the twentieth century.”

“Over time, this mass relocation would come to dwarf  in size the scope the California Gold Rush of the 1850s with its one hundred thousand participants and the Dust Bowl migration of some three hundred thousand people from Oklahoma and Arkansas to California in the 1930s. But more remarkably, it was the first mass act of independence by a people who were in bondage in this country for far longer than they have been free.”

Wilkerson interviewed more than 1,200 people across the nation, then settled on telling in detail the stories of three individuals. Their stories are stand-ins for millions of black families, including my own.

What is remarkable, aside from the enormous courage and determination it took for these emigrants to leave the South and move into uncertain futures in uncertain territories, is also how these emigrants changed America in substantial ways because they weren’t always greeted with hospitality.

sundown-townsFor me, reading Wilkerson’s book recalled James W. Loewen’s Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism, a troubling history of the many towns and suburbs across the US that did not welcome the emigrants, transforming people who had been rural folks into city dwellers and even then forced into very restriced sectors, what came to be called ghettos.

More recently, T.J. English’s The Savage City: Race, Murder, and a Generation on the Edge (reviewed in the December 1 issue of Booklist) analyzes how racism and discrimination of blacks from the South and the Caribbean impacted every aspect of sociology, politics and culture in the Big Apple. Before beginning a masterful examination of crime and punishment in New York from 1963 to 1973, English expounds that “… one event that would reshape the city in surprising ways occurred hundreds of miles away, in a dusty hamlet outside the town of Clarksdale, Mississippi.” He is referring to changes in southern agriculture that would compel millions to head north to New York and other cities.

The beauty of Wilkerson’s book is that she forcefully debunks the conventional wisdom that the ignorant masses from the South came north and ruined America’s cities with their pathologies. “From the moment the emigrants set foot in the North and West, they were blamed for troubles in the cities they fled to. They were said to have brought family dysfunction with them, to more likely be out-of-work, unwed parents, and on welfare, then the people already there.” She goes on to highlight scholarship that takes a closer look at the Great Emigrants and grants them their due as just as hard-working as other emigrants and immigrants who’d picked up their lives and transported themselves somewhere they thought offered better opportunities, a long overdue recognition.



About the Author:

Vanessa Bush is a freelance reviewer for Booklist and is a contributor to Chicago Public Radio.

3 Comments on "Minority Report: The Great Migration to The Warmth of Other Suns"

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  1.' Loisteen Walker says:

    It was truly a well written book which shed much light on the southern migration period. I am a migrant baby, whose parents sought a better life in the North. I was 9 months old when they fled the South to Chicago. Even though they migrated North searching for better opportunities, they continued to make the trek back South every summer.I remember those trips South, which my brothers and I enjoyed every moment. We had no idea of what an undertaking it was for my mother to keep us intact and warned not to take our City habits with us. I remember an incident on the train which involved 2 Caucasion elderly ladies, the conductor and my mother. It was not until I was an adult, that I realized that we could have been hurt because my mother would not back down regarding our seats. Reading this book, brought back those memories.On each journey back North at the end of the summer, we always brought a relative back with us, until they could “get on their feet”. My father told me stories about sharecropping and as much family history that he knew before he passed. However, this book made me hunger for more information from him, particularly about what he endured and why he and his siblings fled. It made me really appreciate the history I have collected from my family.

  2.' Harriet Luckett says:

    This is one of the best book that I have read, and it was well written. I have told many, many people to read it. Any black person whose family was not born in the north was affected by the great migration. It should be a must read in every high school attended by black students.

  3.' Toni Asante Lightfoot Director of Workshops says:

    This is a portion of the history of the United States of America and should therefore be taught as part of the history of the United States of America. The political impact of these great artists, inventors, educators, lawyers, doctors, preachers, writers, and common folk on the development of the entire USA has not been studied enough. This book is a great addition to the paucity of work that has been done and I look forward to many more works for each city, state, region, and the whole country. As African-Americans are not the only group affected by our history we are not be the only demographic this book can educate.

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